* CO2 levels cause outgassing when the temperature increases and thus an additional increase in the internal pressure of the bottle.
** For openings according to DIN-EN 12726, a mean diameter of 20 mm (50 mm below the upper edge of the muzzle) can be expected. The actual course of the mouth varies from bottle to bottle.
Headspace = airspace between wine level and natural cork
*** Determine with pressure gauge (needle gauge). Typical values for corking with a vacuum are between -0.2 and 0.2 bar. Without pressure-reducing measures, the values can be over 3 bar with a small headspace.
**** The remaining headspace goes to 0, and the pressure rises to infinity; but in fact, the pressure between the bottle wall and cork builds up and either pushes the cork out of the bottle or the bottle bursts.